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The dominant producers of iodine today are Chile and Japan.Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition.Temperatures greater than 750 °C are required for fluorine, chlorine, and bromine to dissociate to a similar extent.Most bonds to iodine are weaker than the analogous bonds to the lighter halogens. The I–I bond is one of the longest single bonds known.

Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities.Due to its high atomic number and ease of attachment to organic compounds, it has also found favour as a non-toxic radiocontrast material.Because of the specificity of its uptake by the human body, radioactive isotopes of iodine can also be used to treat thyroid cancer.Iodine occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I), and the various periodate anions.It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element.

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